[11] Quetzalcoatl was one of several important gods in the Aztec pantheon, along with the gods Tlaloc, Tezcatlipoca and Huitzilopochtli. Quetzalcoatl was also the patr… Xolotl accompanied Quetzalcoatl to [8], Xolotl was the patron of the Mesoamerican ballgame. Some scholarship maintains the view that the Aztec Empire's fall may be attributed in part to the belief in Cortés as the returning Quetzalcoatl, notably in works by David Carrasco (1982), H. B. Nicholson (2001 (1957)) and John Pohl (2016). As the morning star he was known by the title Tlahuizcalpantecuhtli, meaning "lord of the star of the dawn." Xolotl was also the god of fire and lighting, sickness and deformities. Seler thinks "that the root of the name ollin suggested to Mexicans the motion of the rubber ball olli and, as a consequence, ball-playing. While not usually feathered, classic Maya serpent iconography seems related to the belief in a sky-, Venus-, creator-, war- and fertility-related serpent deity. In the end, Ehecatl succeeded in finding and killing Xolotl. ( Public Domain ) The roots of Quetzalcoatl, or at least the form of the feathered serpent, can be traced all the way back to the Olmec civili… He was involved in Quetzalcoatl’s quest to take bones of the undead back to the surface world. Xolotl accompanied Quetzalcoatl to Mictlan, the land of the dead, or the underworld, to retrieve the bones from those who inhabited the previous world (Nahui Atl) to create new life for the present world, Nahui Ollin, the sun of movement. The date 9 Wind is known to be associated with fertility, Venus and war among the Maya and frequently occurs in relation to Quetzalcoatl in other Mesoamerican cultures. Ollin is the motion-change of cyclical completion. [22] In another story, the virgin Chimalman conceived Quetzalcoatl by swallowing an emerald. Cult worship may have involved the ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms (psilocybes), considered sacred. Those bones he anointed with his own blood, giving birth to the men who inhabit the present universe. [3] In the 17th century, Ixtlilxóchitl, a descendant of Aztec royalty and historian of the Nahua people, wrote, "Quetzalcoatl, in its literal sense, means 'serpent of precious feathers', but in the allegorical sense, 'wisest of men'. (Restall 2001 p. 114)[full citation needed]. Ashure The god of lightning and Venus, he is Quetzalcoatl’s diseased and ugly twin. For example, in the Codex Mendoza we see him playing with the moon-god, and can recognize him by the sign ollin which accompanies him, and by the gouged-out eye in which that symbol ends. [8], In art, Xolotl was typically depicted as a dog-headed man, a skeleton, or a deformed monster with reversed feet. [13] In Mazatec legends the astrologer deity Tlahuizcalpanteuctli, who is also represented by Venus, bears a close relationship with Quetzalcoatl.[14]. This depiction is believed to have been made around 900 BC. Ehecatl ("God of Wind") consequently began slaying all other gods to induce the newly created Sun into movement. In his form as Ehecatl he is the wind, and is represented by spider monkeys, ducks, and the wind itself. Xolotl was the god of fire and lightning. Quetzalcoatl was associated with the wind god Ehecatl and is often depicted with his insignia: a beak-like mask. [1] He was also god of twins, monsters, misfortune, sickness, and deformities. In the religion of the Aztec Empire, Xolotl was a god of fire, lightning, deformities and death. Other parties have also promulgated the idea that the Mesoamericans believed the conquistadors, and in particular Cortés, to be awaited gods: most notably the historians of the Franciscan order such as Fray Gerónimo de Mendieta. An incense burner in the form of a skeletal canine depicts Xolotl. And when the wind rose, when the dust rumbled, and it crack and there was a great din, became it became dark and the wind blew in many directions, and it thundered; then it was said: "[Quetzalcoatl] is wrathful. Seler speculates that Xolotl represents the murdered twin who dwells in the darkness of Mictlan, while Quetzalcoatl ("The Precious Twin") represents the surviving twin who dwells in the light of the sun. It is possible that dog sculptures also found in burials were also intended to help people on this journey. The Tlaxcalteca, along with other city-states across the Plain of Puebla, then supplied the auxiliary and logistical support for the conquests of Guatemala and West Mexico while Mixtec and Zapotec caciques (Colonial indigenous rulers) gained monopolies in the overland transport of Manila galleon trade through Mexico, and formed highly lucrative relationships with the Dominican order in the new Spanish imperial world economic system that explains so much of the enduring legacy of indigenous life-ways that characterize southern Mexico and explain the popularity of the Quetzalcoatl legends that continued through the colonial period to the present day. He is the sinister god of monstrosities who wears the spirally-twisted wind jewel and the ear ornaments of Quetzalcoatl. At temples such as the aptly named "Quetzalcoatl temple" in the Ciudadela complex, feathered serpents figure prominently and alternate with a different kind of serpent head. Often our current time was considered the fifth sun,[citation needed] the previous four having been destroyed by flood, fire and the like. The Aztec believed Xolotl traveled with his b rother, Quetzalcoatl to Mictlan, the underworld, to retrieve the bones of an extinct race of beings that inhabited the previous world. [11] Their main duty was to help their owners cross a deep river. However, this legend likely has a foundation in events that took place immediately prior to the arrival of the Spaniards. Xolotl is the evening star, a counterpart of Quetzalcoatl, the morning star. Most Mesoamerican beliefs included cycles of suns. He also had anthropomorphic forms, for example in his aspects as Ehecatl the wind god. Auh yn jquac molhuja eheca, mjtoa: teuhtli quaqualaca, ycoioca, tetecujca, tlatlaiooa, tlatlapitza, tlatlatzinj, motlatlaueltia. In the Postclassic period (900–1519 AD), the worship of the feathered-serpent deity centred in the primary Mexican religious center of Cholula. In a version of the myth, Quetzalcoatl was born by a virgin named Chimalman, to whom the god Onteol appeared in a dream. In this period the deity is known to have been named Quetzalcōhuātl by his Nahua followers. Subtleties in, and an imperfect scholarly understanding of, high Nahuatl rhetorical style make the exact intent of these comments tricky to ascertain, but Restall argues that Moctezuma's politely offering his throne to Cortés (if indeed he did ever give the speech as reported) may well have been meant as the exact opposite of what it was taken to mean: politeness in Aztec culture was a way to assert dominance and show superiority. The story of the life of the Mexican divinity, Quetzalcoatl, closely resembles that of the Savior; so closely, indeed, that we can come to no other conclusion than that Quetzalcoatl and Christ are the same being. He gathered up the pieces and took them to the earth goddess Cihuacoatl (Snake … Some followers of the Latter Day Saints movement believe that Quetzalcoatl was historically Jesus Christ, but believe his name and the details of the event were gradually lost over time. Quetzalcóatl, Mayan name Kukulcán, (from Nahuatl quetzalli, “tail feather of the quetzal bird [ Pharomachrus mocinno ],” and coatl, “snake”), the Feathered Serpent, one of the major deities of the ancient Mexican pantheon. For the giant pterosaur, see. Over the South presides the Blue Tezcatlipoca, Huitzilopochtli, the god of war. The Maya people, for instance, referred to Quetzalcoatl as Kukulkán, whilst the Quiché of Guatemala knew this god as Gucumatz. In the 17th century, Ixtlilxóchitl, a descendant of Aztec royalty and historian of the Nahua people, wrote, "Quetzalcoatl, in its literal sense, means 'serpent of precious feathers', but in the allegorical sense, 'wisest of men'." He was commonly depicted as a dog-headed man and was a soul-guide for the dead. Represented as the plumed serpent, Quetzalcoatl was also manifest in the wind, one of the most powerful forces of nature, and this relationship was captured in a text in the Nahuatl language: Quetzalcoatl; yn ehecatl ynteiacancauh yntlachpancauh in tlaloque, yn aoaque, yn qujqujiauhti. It is also suggested that he was a son of Xochiquetzal and Mixcoatl. [9] Furthermore, early Spanish sources written by clerics tend to identify the god-ruler Quetzalcoatl of these narratives with either Hernán Cortés or Thomas the Apostle—identifications which have also become sources of a diversity of opinions about the nature of Quetzalcoatl.[10]. On the basis of the different symbolic systems used in portrayals of the feathered serpent deity in different cultures and periods, scholars have interpreted the religious and symbo… It has been suggested that these stories recall the spread of the feathered serpent cult in the epi-classic and early post-classic periods.[6]. In one version of a particularly well-known myth, that of the creation of mankind, Quetzalcoatl and his twin travel to Mictlan, the Aztec underworld, to retrieve the bones of the dead so that humans can be created. Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec god of wind, air, and learning, wears around his neck the "wind breastplate" ehēcacōzcatl, "the spirally voluted wind jewel" made of a conch shell. Also, the feet on his skeletal body run backwards so he finds it difficult to know if he is coming or going. The most common translation is "water-dog" . [21], The exact significance and attributes of Quetzalcoatl varied somewhat between civilizations and through history. This view has been questioned by ethno-historians who argue that the Quetzalcoatl-Cortés connection is not found in any document that was created independently of post-Conquest Spanish influence, and that there is little proof of a pre-Hispanic belief in Quetzalcoatl's return. [21] Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl constitute the twin phases of Venus as the morning and evening star, respectively. This confederacy engaged in almost seventy-five years of nearly continuous conflict with the Aztec Empire of the Triple Alliance until the arrival of Cortés. The legend of Quetzalcoatl is spoofed in the Adult Swim CGI series Xavier: Renegade Angel. After a slapstick-style chase scene, Xavier winds up as the Sun God and commits "sacricide" (sacrificial suicide), ending the skit. Much of the idea of Cortés being seen as a deity can be traced back to the Florentine Codex written down some 50 years after the conquest. Quetzalcoatl was also the patron of the priests and the title of the twin Aztec high priests. Xolotl is frequently paired with Quetzalcoatl in various myths, whether as his twin or as his canine companion. In some myths, the Xolotl and Quetzalcoatl appear together. Ver más ideas sobre arte prehispanico, aztecas, prehispanico. In the post-classic Nahua civilization of central Mexico (Aztec), the worship of Quetzalcoatl was ubiquitous. The exact significance and attributes of Quetzalcoatl varied somewhat between civilizations and through history. Two other gods represented by the planet Venus are Quetzalcoatl's ally Tlaloc (the god of rain), and Quetzalcoatl's twin and psychopomp, Xolotl. Despite all these good deeds, XOLOTL is dogged by deformity — he has a hound’s head. As a double of Quetzalcoatl, he carries his conch-like ehecailacacozcatl or wind jewel. Historian Matthew Restall concludes that: The legend of the returning lords, originated during the Spanish-Mexica war in Cortés' reworking of Moctezuma's welcome speech, had by the 1550s merged with the Cortés-as-Quetzalcoatl legend that the Franciscans had started spreading in the 1530s. In Aztec culture, depictions of Quetzalcoatl were fully anthropomorphic. Among the Aztecs, whose beliefs are the best-documented in the historical sources, Quetzalcoatl was related to gods of the wind, of the planet Venus, of the dawn, of merchants and of arts, crafts and knowledge. Every night, I lead the Sun down to Mictlán to die. He is identified with sickness and physical deformity. Mexico's flagship airline Aeroméxico has a Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner painted in a special Quezalcoatl livery. Xolotl is the canine brother and twin of Quetzalcoatl,[2] the pair being sons of the virgin Coatlicue. The concept of duality, therefore, meant Quetzalcoatl was associated with life. Symbols, Iconography, and Art of Xolotl Aztec art usually portrays the Aztec god Xolotl with ragged ears and other deformities like reversed feet. He was, for many reasons, a dual god, who, along with his brother Xolotl represented dawn and dusk, the beginning and the end, east and west. This is also evident in the duality of serpent figures throughout Mesopotamian history. His two spirit animal forms are the Xoloitzcuintli dog and the water salamander species known as the Axolotl. The archaeological record shows that after the fall of Teotihuacan that marked the beginning of the epi-classic period in Mesoamerican chronology around 600 AD, the cult of the feathered serpent spread to the new religious and political centers in central Mexico, centers such as Xochicalco, Cacaxtla and Cholula. ", "Method and Skepticism (and Quetzalcoatl...)", "Quetzalcoatl, the Maya maize god and Jesus Christ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quetzalcoatl&oldid=1001694940, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles having same image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles containing Classical Nahuatl-language text, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2012, Articles with incomplete citations from April 2020, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles with Nahuatl languages-collective sources (nah), Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 21:46. He is the dark personification of Venus, the evening star, and was associated with heavenly fire. Xolotl, however, was unwilling to die in order to give movement to the new Sun. But this deity was known by other names in other Mesoamerican civilizations . A feathered serpent deity has been worshiped by many different ethnopolitical groups in Mesoamerican history. [5] His job was to protect the sun from the dangers of the underworld. In Xochicalco, depictions of the feathered serpent are accompanied by the image of a seated, armed ruler and the hieroglyph for the day sign 9 Wind. Quetzalcoatl went to Mictlan, the underworld, and created fifth-world mankind from the bones of the previous races (with the help of Cihuacoatl), using his own blood, from a wound he inflicted on his earlobes, calves, tongue, and penis, to imbue the bones with new life. According to the creation recounted in the Florentine Codex , after the Fifth Sun was initially created, it did not move. [38] In a 1986 paper for Sunstone, he noted that during the Spanish Conquest, the Native Americans and the Catholic priests who sympathized with them felt pressure to link Native American beliefs with Christianity, thus making the Native Americans seem more human and less savage. [40][41] The deity has been featured as a character in the manga and anime series Yu-Gi-Oh! Members of this confederacy from Tlaxcala, Puebla, and Oaxaca provided the Spaniards with the army that first reclaimed the city of Cholula from its pro-Aztec ruling faction, and ultimately defeated the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City). Unsurprisingly, many depictions of Quetzalcoatl pertain to a serpent, with the probable earliest known representation of the god found at the Olmec … Since the sixteenth century, it has been widely held that the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II initially believed the landing of Hernán Cortés in 1519 to be Quetzalcoatl's return. Quetzalcoatl allegedly went to Mictlan, the underworld, and created fifth-world mankind from the bones of the previous races (with the help of Chihuacoatl), using his own blood, from a wound in his penis, to imbue the bones with new life. Quetzalcoatl has two brothers. It is typified by bouncing balls, pulsating hearts, labor contractions, earthquakes, flapping butterfly wings, the undulating motion of weft activities in weaving, and the oscillating path of the Fifth Sun over and under the surface of the earth.

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